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retrovirus structure

The retroviral vector cannot replicate further as it does not encode the viral structural proteins that are provided by the packaging cell. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. JSRV brings an oncogene into every infected cell. Structure of retrovirus particles. Retrovirus – they have RNA as genetic material, Virus – they have RNA as well as DNA as genetic material, Retrovirus – retrovirus do not destroy the host cell, Virus – virus can destroy host cell once they start replicating. Experimental infection of day-old lambs with JSRV induces tumor formation within 3–6 weeks. For many years, these viruses were collectively called “RNA tumor viruses.” In general they caused noncytopathic infections, required dividing cells for establishment of productive infection, and were tumorigenic; once tumor cells were formed, the transformed phenotype was stably inherited by daughter cells.

The receptors are specific, for convenience, the retrovirus HIV uses CD4 and CXCR-4 (fusion) or the CCR5 (CC-CKR-5) receptor. The other (ORF B) protects cells from apoptotic stimuli. It contains gag proteins, protease (PR), pol protein, and env proteins. During fusion the membrane lipids are rearranged, the adjacent halves of the contacting membranes are merged, and a proteinaceous fusion pore develops. Retroviruses are single-stranded positive-sense RNA containing viruses that are enveloped and have a DNA intermediate during the infection. Due to the functional copy of env gene retroviruses are distinct from retroelements.

A little protein biology is needed at this point. TAX interacts with cellular proteins and forms a complex on the LTR thereby increasing transcription. In this way, the released retroviruses escape from the infected host cell without destroying it and infect neighbouring host cells. Temin published this seminal work in 1970,1 side-by-side with a paper from David Baltimore.2 Thus in 1970, two laboratories independently and convincingly demonstrated that RNA tumor viruses package an enzymatically active DNA polymerase. Other oncogenic retroviruses are less “potent”: Tumors are slower to develop and those that do are usually monoclonal.

Studies of oncogenic retroviruses date back to the early 1900s with descriptions of “filterable agents” capable of causing avian leucosis and avian sarcoma. The first cancer-inducing (oncogenic) retrovirus, the avian sarcoma virus, was isolated by Peyton Rous in 1911. Mechanisms of virus transmission include sexual contact, breast-feeding, blood transfusion, and contaminated needles. Retroviruses were first used for genetic manipulation in humans: 1993–98: The crystal structures of reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase were determined: 1997–99: Protease inhibitors for treatment for AIDS were developed, the first examples of drugs that were derived from structure-based design: 1989–91

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